Paula Deen and the “N” Word

Paul Deen's "N" Word Use

(Photo Credit: NPR)

The recent controversy surrounding Paula Deen’s use of the “N” word has evinced, as Randall Kennedy puts it, “the strange career of a troublesome word.”  The “N” word is arguably the most incendiary, insensitive, and hateful word someone can use.  When one considers that this word was employed during the American institution of slavery to characterize Black people as being less than human, it becomes not only a mean-spirited, racist and degrading term, but also a term used to maintain the power structure of slavery and Jim Crow.  A recent legal deposition revealed that Paul Deen has used the “N” word in the past, specifically as part of her desire to construct a “very southern style” wedding for her brother that would include a “whole entire wait staff” of “middle-aged black men.”

Deen’s use of the “N” word is deeply problematic for many reasons, including the overt racist history and ideology of the word.  If there was one word many people could ban, it would be the “N” word.  I would love for us to be able to magically eviscerate its history, power, and ideology.  Unfortunately, this is only possible in Science Fiction literature and films.  We have to deal directly with this word because it’s an important part of America’s past and present history.  To attempt to avoid engaging critically with this word is to be self-victimized by historical amnesia, disengagement from history, and vexing colorblindness.

Paula Deen’s use of the “N” word is inexcusable.  She fully understands the racist history and ideology of this word.  I’m not prepared, however, to call this woman a racist.  From what I have observed and know about her, she seems to be a nice lady.  In America, we use many hateful terms that we don’t necessarily attach genuine hate to—we just use them.  When many Black people use the “N” word and its various derivatives, they’re not using the words with hate—they’re just using the words.  Should we excuse them for their use of the “N” word?  No.

What this controversy exposes is a problem of nostalgia for the pre-Civil War South.  While I can understand why many White southerners can find some phenomena about the pre-Civil War South to be desirable, those nostalgic longings need to show empathy for this time period being a brutal and murderous period for Blacks.  It’s not like Deen is unaware of the racist and discriminatory history of the pre-Civil War South.  In Postmodernism or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, Fredric Jameson contends that one of the most problematic things about postmodernism, the historical and cultural moment in which we reside, is it has a problem with writing its own history because it depends on nostalgia rather than reality.  Deen’s nostalgia blinds her from being fully sensitive to America’s horrid racist and discriminatory history.  Mrs. Deen’s nostalgia causes America’s racist history to the rise to the surface for the nation to contemplate.  If one is going to engage in nostalgia for the past, he or she should be responsible about the full history of the longed for past.

I’m a fan of Paula Deen’s cooking, recipes, and personality.  Her poor choice of language, however, I cannot and will not support.  While Americans enjoy the freedom of speech (and all speech is not constitutionally protected), they also have to accept the responsibilities of their speech.  I posit that The Food Network should have let the market determine if Mrs. Deen should be fired—not simply make a decision based on immediate reactions in the mainstream media to aspects of the reported legal deposition.

Even though I don’t normally agree with Roland Martin (and we’ve exchanged words in the past on Twitter when I contended that he often makes many inconsequential statements on Twitter), I agree with him in part when he argues that Black people cannot be angry with Paula Deen because they use the word so often.  Yes, Blacks and Whites need to stop using the word.  If the word is so offensive to Blacks, then they should discontinue using it.  The fundamental defect in Martin’s argument, however, is his conflation of Deen’s use of the “N” word with the way in which numerous Blacks use it.  When many Blacks primarily use the word, it comes from a non-racist and non-disparaging context.  The context of Deen’s use of the word is at a minimum disparaging.  If she didn’t want to have to be accountable for her words, then she shouldn’t have used them.

Paula Deen should be evaluated by her body of work.  Too often we judge and define people by the one or two mistakes they make, instead of considering the many great things they have done and accomplished.

Antonio Maurice Daniels

University of Wisconsin-Madison


  1. I actually wasn’t mad at her. Paula is who she is, I can’t be mad at her for being who she is. I was more surprised that peope were surprised that she said it. I’m not sayin that she is a card carrying member of the KKK but like you said she is a southern white woman. Who has probably said the N word and probaby worse. Just because she is on TV doesn’t mean she is above reproach. I was actually mad that she thought saying thos things were ok or accectable.

    1. She has to learn to be more responsible about her language. Deen has a large empire and she’s acting like she’s running a lemonade stand with those comments. Being from the South is not an excuse for her language, but it does factor in to why she said what she said.

  2. The only thing that I have to add to this awesome piece is that a lot of ambiguously prejudiced people on both sides of the divide are making this their personal ax to grind especially with the Food Network. Just take a look at the idiots on this page: – The Food Network like most other networks wants nothing to do with a scandal no matter what it is and as usual they chose to cut the problem quickly rather than take a position for fear of it affecting the bottom-line. This is all silly.

    Racist or not (I truly could care less) Paula Deen will glide to her feet in a glorious trail of butter being that she hustled her way up to this position and could probably do it again. I presume she will do her Today’s show appearance on Wednesday, garner more support and be picked up by another Network soon.

    1. Excellent response! I very much agree with you. I, too, believe that she will be picked up by another network. She should not be simply defined by this controversy. I love the following use of language by you: “…Deen will glide to her feet in a glorious trail of butter…” She is, indeed, a hustler and will hustle her way back to the top of the economic ladder.

  3. What exactly did she say? And Like one of the commentors said, I’m sure she had used that words many times.

    I’m not shocked that she said it, nor am I shocked by anyone who says it, why? Because we say it. I know its roots were outta of hate, but we use it so if it bothers us that much then we shouldn’t use it either.

    I use it, and honestly idk how I would react to being called one. So maybe I should do what MJ did and start with the person in the mirror and make a change.

    Because when someone non black says it, it hurts it upsets the whole word.

    Ms. Deen needs to own it and apologize.

    1. Excellent response. In the past, while desiring to create a southern-style wedding for her brother, she used the “N” word to describe the wait staff she wanted to be a part of the wedding. She was under oath and was asked has she ever used the word. She had to admit the truth and she did. She has apologized and owned the consequences of her errors. Black people, indeed, have to stop using the word if they are so offended by it.

      1. I don’t understand why someone would bring up the past. If she said it on air live, then I could see them repremanding her or firing her.

        But if it happened a while ago, it should’ve been handled then. Not now.

        1. She’s being sued for discrimination by one of her employees. As a part of questioning her about anything she’s done in the past that’s been racist, the employee’s lawyers asked has she ever said the “N” word and she had to admit she did say it a few times in the past and why. I think the market (viewers and consumers) should determine if she should be fired; that is, the ratings and sales should determine if she should be fired (at least in this case). Trust me, I hate this word and I hate when a White person uses it. I don’t like Black people using it. I just don’t want people judging someone based on a few errors rather than the full history of good or great things they’ve done. People fail to think about how if their lives were examined in the way in which Deen’s life is being examined, how they would feel and how they would want a fair examination of their lives. I feel you!

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.